New MLA Guidelines for Citing Sources

When writing a research report or an essay, it’s important that you know the rules and guidelines for writing a bibliography, using images, or using quotations from research sources. Oak Meadow students are asked to use the MLA style of creating and formatting citations.

Quick Guide to MLA Citations

In 2016, the Modern Language Association (MLA) released simplified citation guidelines, which aim for a more universal, consistent format regardless of the source medium. Most notable are the following changes:

  • No longer include the city of publication for print publishers.
  • No longer include the medium (print, web, film, etc.).
  • Include URL in website citations.
  • No longer include n.d. (no date) if website/article date is unknown .
  • Date accessed by you is optional for website citations.
  • Make entries as consistent as possible in terms of information and punctuation.

Feel free to continue to use the previous MLA style as long as you’d like — it’s still correct. The new style is more streamlined and hopefully will be easier to learn, use, and read. For those who want all the details, read this.

MLA Guidelines for Citing Sources (updated 2016):

For print sources, include the following:

Author last name, first name. Title. Publishing company, year.

Here is an example:

Stevenson, Robert Louis. Treasure Island. Dover, 1993.

When citing online sources, use this format:

Author last name, first name (if known). “Title of article.” Website. Organization,
publication date (if known). URL (without http://, brackets, or ending punctuation)

Here is an example:

Bradbury, Lorna. “25 Classic Novels for Teenagers.” The Telegraph, 5 April 2012.>

Website dates are given in this format: day month year. Longer months are abbreviated: Jan, Nov. You can delete the http// from the URL.

When citing an online video clip (such as YouTube):

Author last name, first name (if known). “Title of article.” Website. Organization, publication date. URL

Here is an example:

Schlickenmeyer, Max. “The Most Astounding Fact—Neil deGrasse Tyson.” YouTube. YouTube, 2 Mar. 2012.

When citing a film, here is the format:

Film Title. Dir. First name Last name. Perf. First name Last name. Distributor, year of release.
Note: Dir. stands for director, and Perf. stands for performers. You can list as many or few performers as you like.

Here’s an example:

Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone. Dir. Chris Columbus. Perf. Daniel Radcliff, Emma Watson, Rupert Grint, Alan Rickman, Robbie Coltraine and Tom Felton. Warner Brothers, 2001.

To cite an image, write a caption that includes “Image credit” and the creator’s name (if you can find it) and/or the original source. If you found the image on the web, try to provide a link back to the source.

Voting Rights

images-2Yesterday I rode my bicycle. I rode through town without a male escort. I have a college education. I love my job, which I chose myself as a career.

I also voted!

Women have come a long way toward equal rights in the United States! As I walked into the center where I could cast my vote this week, I thought about the first women’s rights conference in Seneca Falls, New York. As I went into the voting booth, I quietly thanked those women. I thanked them for the many years they worked hard and passionately, and for the many attempts they made for the passage of an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States which would allow women the right to vote. Some women were jailed for picketing the White House for their right to vote. (Women were the first to picket the White House in protest.)
Did you know there are countries in the world where women do not have the right to vote?

What Happened?

images-1This week my father turned 91 years old. (Happy Birthday, Dad!) We always enjoy birthday parties with my Dad! We have a tradition of having him tell us what he was doing at the present age of each member of the family. This year the youngest among us was a great grandson just 13 months old. It was fun to hear my father speak about what he was doing when he was 13 months old! The oldest at the party was 68 years and that too was amusing!
We decided this year to list many of the things that had been invented since our father (grandfather or great grandfather) was born. Each family member brought a description of the invention to the party. Wow! He has certainly seen many, many inventions in his lifetime!
I think we take for granted some of the inventions he saw in his lifetime, such as the color TV or the black box flight recorder. Lithium batteries and the pocket calculator surprised all of us as just being invented in the 1970s.
All this talk about past inventions got me wondering what is being invented (and patented) right now! I found out about The Lemelson-MIT Program which strives to celebrate  “outstanding inventors and inspires young people to pursue creative lives and careers through invention.” It is so interesting to read about the most recent inventions that are being awarded!
Do you have something that you are working on that will one day be an invention that will benefit us all? Join an inventor’s club! Here’s a list of them by state:
Good luck!

Prepare for the School Year!

As school begins for many in the northern hemisphere, it’s time to get school supplies in order for the school year. For those of you in 7-8 grade, I hope you have your very own dictionary and thesaurus! Both will become your best friends as you go through the year. If you are looking for a good dictionary that will last you through the junior high years, find a Merriam-Webster’s Intermediate Dictionary. imagesAlso recommended is the Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary. (Try to get the most recent addition.) For a good thesaurus, try Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Thesaurus.
Also really useful will be a good atlas for discovering new places in the world. I like Rand McNally’s Goodes World Atlas, but look through a bunch at the bookstore or library until you find one you like. These three items will serve you well for many years to come!
Have a wonderful beginning!

What's new, Gooru?

The Merriam-Webster Dictionary has a definition of the word “Guru” as “a teacher or guide that you trust, or a person who has a lot of experience in or knowledge about a particular subject.”

Knowing that definition, it’s easy to see why the GOORU group chose their name! They are definitely knowledgeable in the subject of all that is Google!

The Gooru Icon
The Gooru Logo

At Oak Meadow, the 7th and 8th grade students may obtain an Oak Meadow Gmail address to submit lesson work, chat with other Oak Meadow students, or communicate with their teacher. Many students have never done that before and simply don’t know how to begin. Maybe you are new to Gmail and are anxious to find out about it and all that Google has to offer. 
Take a look and learn some basics about Gmail and also some tips and tricks you may not already know! Watch the Youtube video tutorials at Gooru Google Training Guide

Let’s Get Outside!

This summer GET OUTSIDE!

Take a vacation from the computer, the phone, the TV, the tablet, the Game Boy, the Wii, the Nintendo, and whatever other device you may have, and GET OUTSIDE!
I’ll take a break from this blog and enjoy the great outdoors myself!

See you at the end of August!


Summer Viewing!

The night sky in New England, June 30-July 4
from Sky and Telescope
Summer, in New England, is a great time for gathering friends on a warm evening and doing some star viewing. If you know there will be a clear night for star viewing, it’s a great time to HAVE A STAR PARTY! images
Send invitations, make “star” snacks, and put lots of blankets on the ground for friends to sit down on for good viewing. It’s fun to have some binoculars, a telescope, or one of the free astronomy apps available. Make sure you have flashlights for looking at books of constellations! images
Most towns in New England have astronomy clubs and the people in the clubs are usually very willing to come join in the fun and help answer star gazing questions. The Astronomical Society of Northern New England can be contacted for Star Parties!
So if you are thinking of having a party this summer, think about including some star gazing, too!

World Juggling Day!

imageWhat is World Juggling Day?

“To honor the founding of the International Jugglers’ Association in June 1947, the IJA annually declares a Saturday in June as “World Juggling Day.” This year it is inviting individual jugglers and juggling groups around the world to create events on Saturday, June 20, 2015, designed to spotlight juggling — a regional juggling festival, a teaching session in a school or park, a “Big Toss-Up,” juggling games or media related juggling stunts.
Teaching the art of juggling will also be a focus of World Juggling Day. Jugglers worldwide will be sharing their knowledge to teach the ancient art to as many would-be jugglers as possible.
Make your plans now to be part of something big in the world of juggling! Join up with your object manipulating friends across the globe for World Juggling Day!” IJA website
For Oak Meadow students looking for some new tricks or how to videos, be sure to check out the ezine eJuggle, the official publication of the National Juggler’s Association.