New MLA Guidelines for Citing Sources

When writing a research report or an essay, it’s important that you know the rules and guidelines for writing a bibliography, using images, or using quotations from research sources. Oak Meadow students are asked to use the MLA style of creating and formatting citations.

Quick Guide to MLA Citations

In 2016, the Modern Language Association (MLA) released simplified citation guidelines, which aim for a more universal, consistent format regardless of the source medium. Most notable are the following changes:

  • No longer include the city of publication for print publishers.
  • No longer include the medium (print, web, film, etc.).
  • Include URL in website citations.
  • No longer include n.d. (no date) if website/article date is unknown .
  • Date accessed by you is optional for website citations.
  • Make entries as consistent as possible in terms of information and punctuation.

Feel free to continue to use the previous MLA style as long as you’d like — it’s still correct. The new style is more streamlined and hopefully will be easier to learn, use, and read. For those who want all the details, read this.

MLA Guidelines for Citing Sources (updated 2016):

For print sources, include the following:

Author last name, first name. Title. Publishing company, year.

Here is an example:

Stevenson, Robert Louis. Treasure Island. Dover, 1993.


When citing online sources, use this format:

Author last name, first name (if known). “Title of article.” Website. Organization,
publication date (if known). URL (without http://, brackets, or ending punctuation)

Here is an example:

Bradbury, Lorna. “25 Classic Novels for Teenagers.” Telegraph.co.uk. The Telegraph, 5 April 2012. www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/bookreviews/9189047/25-classic-novels-for-teenagers.html/p>

Website dates are given in this format: day month year. Longer months are abbreviated: Jan, Nov. You can delete the http// from the URL.


When citing an online video clip (such as YouTube):

Author last name, first name (if known). “Title of article.” Website. Organization, publication date. URL

Here is an example:

Schlickenmeyer, Max. “The Most Astounding Fact—Neil deGrasse Tyson.” YouTube. YouTube, 2 Mar. 2012. www.youtube.com/watch?v=9D05ej8u-gU


When citing a film, here is the format:

Film Title. Dir. First name Last name. Perf. First name Last name. Distributor, year of release.
Note: Dir. stands for director, and Perf. stands for performers. You can list as many or few performers as you like.

Here’s an example:

Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone. Dir. Chris Columbus. Perf. Daniel Radcliff, Emma Watson, Rupert Grint, Alan Rickman, Robbie Coltraine and Tom Felton. Warner Brothers, 2001.


To cite an image, write a caption that includes “Image credit” and the creator’s name (if you can find it) and/or the original source. If you found the image on the web, try to provide a link back to the source.

Books for Kindergarten Students

As many of us are winding down the school year, it is encouraged to continue reading stories and picture books to our children throughout the summer season. This is especially important for the preschool and kindergarten aged students, so the Oak Meadow teachers teamed up and shared some of their favorite books for this age level:

Sarah Antel:

Tasha Tudor wrote some sweet animal stories.

What about Robert McClosky’s Blueberries for Sal and One Morning in Maine?

I have memories of my parents reading me The Wind in the Willows no matter how old I was; it was my favorite story growing up.

Leslie Daniels:

One of my favorites for a kindergarten student is Adrienne Keith’s book, Fairies From A to Z. The drawings are colorful and delightful, and the book is formatted in poetry style. This book also includes special “fairy words” for each letter that are found along the borders of the pages. In addition, there is a fairy box (home) to construct at the back of the book. My own children at this age level loved this book – and they also loved making their own fairy boxes.

Also, we can’t forget the wonderful books written by Margaret Wise Brown, Elsa Beskow, and Barbara Berger. They are perfect for kindergarten students!

Meg Minehan:

In addition to some already mentioned, here are a few of my kids’ kindergarten favorites: My Father’s Dragon series, Jenny Linsky series, Pierre The Truffle Pig, and for a newer book – the Tumtum and Nutmeg series, which are contemporary but with that charm and adventure of The Wind in the Willows, etc. They are fabulous to read aloud.

Andy Kilroy:

My kindergarten-aged granddaughter is already reading pretty easily, so I have been spending my time with her on Explode the Code books. I have also been doing poetry with her, as she loves to make up rhymes. We are both rhyming straight up and she is writing songs, which she loves to do. When we do read, we do books in the “easy reader” genre, so they vary. I have not hit upon any that she likes as much as she likes the rhyming books. I have been trying to do some longer stories with her; she likes Mo Willems books that are written in the non-rhyming format, and she loved Angela and Her Alligator, which is a “chapter book”. She also liked the Berenstain Bears series, which includes great morals and values. My granddaughter also loves Gruffalo and Where the Wild Things Are.

Choosing which books to share with your kindergartener is where the home teacher can use intuition and knowledge of the child to branch out and get creative!

Summer Reading!

Throughout each grade level, Oak Meadow offers a wonderful supply of classics and other cherished books for you and your children to read throughout the school year. However, free reading should also be encouraged during the summer months. Do you need some summer reading ideas? Here’s a good reading list provided by Common Sense Media. This site also provides a section on Wonderful Wordless Books that offers a list of “wordless books” you might like to share with your children. They are perfect for using as story writing prompts, too.
1Summer-Reading-Image-2014The Bookworm for Younger Kids booklist for June is also available to peruse for good reading materials. However, if you would like to subscribe for each month’s group of booklists, you can sign up for free by visiting the Bookworm for Kids official website.
 

HAPPY SUMMER READING!

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Tissue Paper Butterflies

Fly, fly butterfly.

Whither lies your way?

I fly to the sun

On this lovely spring day.

Fly, fly butterfly.

With wings of colored hue.

From the sun please bring us

A message or two.

Author unknown

I have discovered that watching butterflies is a delight at any age. I am in awe as I watch the butterflies emerge from their winter sleep or return home from their long migration. Butterfly watching is fast becoming a popular hobby. Did you know there are more than 650 species of these colorful winged insects in the U.S. alone? Did you know that people who study them are called lepidopterists?
1monarch-butterfly-on-flower-AWIN0908052-08Butterfly conservatories are a great way to observe many different species of butterflies, but most of you don’t even have to leave your backyard before you’ll notice them flitting about. If you are enthusiastic about attracting even more butterflies, you can plant particular varieties of flowers, such as Butterfly Bush, Butterfly Weed, Zinnia, Bergamot, Day Lily, Black-Eyed Susan, and Purple Coneflower, as well as herbs like Tansy, Garlic, and Chives.
1519fg78jCuL._SX258_BO1,204,203,200_Oak Meadow’s science courses in grades k-4 include various studies of the butterfly. In addition to the suggested lesson activities, you might include a guidebook, such as Robert Michael Pyle’s book, National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Butterflies. Or perhaps you would enjoy sharing a butterfly story, such as Alan Madison’s Velma Gratch and the Way Cool Butterfly or Eric Carle’s The Very Hungry Caterpillar or Bruce Coville’s The Prince of Butterflies.
If it’s a rainy day, and no butterflies can be observed, you and your children might like to try your hand at making your own tissue paper “flutter-by”. You can make one that looks like your favorite butterfly, or you can create your own colorful design. Once you are finished, you can hang them altogether in a gentle breeze as a butterfly mobile, or you can hang them individually on a stick and fly them about.
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Here are some very easy instructions:

  1. Cut at least two sheets of brightly colored tissue paper into 4” by 4” squares.
  2. Stack the squares on top of each other, fold in half and cut into the share of a butterfly’s wings.
  3. Fold a pipe cleaner in half and slide the tissue paper between the pipe cleaners, gathering the tissue paper a little if you like.
  4. Form the feelers and the tail by twisting the pipe cleaners at each end.

The Art of Language

Andy Kilroy, one of Oak Meadow’s outstanding k-8 teachers, strongly believes in instilling a love of education in our children. She values the art of language, which is so nicely portrayed in the following essay she composed…
151rTvb9VIfL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_As a teacher who spent most of her professional life in a classroom, my transition to teaching home schooled children has been a joyous realization that there is more to education than memorization, standardized tests and adherence to educational systems that stress conformity and rules. As a mother of five and grandmother of six, I have long realized that sometimes the best sense is nonsense, and that concept is richly illustrated in the pages of a childhood favorite, Winnie-the-Pooh. In today’s stressful and results-oriented world, it is often refreshing to take a step back and look at the value of using language as Pooh Bear does, not to convey specific and important information, but as a means of expression and creativity.
1WinniethepoohYoung children, just learning the joys of reading and language are often charmingly serious. They want to get “it” right, whatever “it” might be on that particular day. They learn that the marks on paper are words and that words have specific meanings, and that to express themselves in the big, wide world, they need to master this difficult thing called “language.” They want to be understood in the world into which they are so earnestly seeking entry. How then do they react when confronted with the fanciful use of language used by Winnie and his delightful friends? Who says words like “heffalump” and “hunny”? Who writes poems, called “hums,” that have a refrain of “Tiddly Pom?” Who speaks of someone who is feeling a bit pessimistic as being “eeyorish”? Winnie does, that is who, and although Pooh is a bear of very little brain, according to Rabbit, he is loved by all for his down to earth good sense and loving nature. Generations of children, and adults, have found great joy in their association with Pooh, who humbly accepts his limitations in the brain department and finds it no great bar to understanding and expressing himself to the world around him, although at times he has to resort to very creative language use to explain his ideas:
“When you are a Bear of Very Little Brain, and you Think of Things, you find sometimes that a Thing which seemed very Thingish inside you is quite different when it gets out into the open and has other people looking at it,” says Winnie!
1tumblr_m49slrKbBa1rwrcuso1_500What a wonderful word is “thingish” as it so perfectly expresses that ineffable “something” that we often can’t find words to express. “Thingish” finds resonance with listeners who have frequently experienced the lack of the perfect word to express their ideas. I submit that “thingish” is the perfect word in some situations to clearly convey the precise meaning of the imprecision of our thoughts! Who among us has not experienced the need for a perfect word, but in our anxiety to achieve precision of language has given up the quest and settled with the inadequate phrase, “Oh, you know what I mean?” How much better to invent a word that conveys exactly what we are thinking? This longing for the right word must be so much more pronounced for our little ones who are just learning language, but who also have important ideas to convey! The idea that, for the youngest among us, this can be a frustrating process, and is best expressed in the immortal words of Pooh Bear:
“My spelling is Wobbly. It’s good spelling but it Wobbles, and the letters get in the wrong places.”
1477d7297a60b5ba057228c41e7bbc9c0So, my plea is to encourage our little learners to see language as an imprecise art form that has life and can adapt, even if their spelling “wobbles”. One has to look no further than the pages of a variety of children’s books to see that our language is alive and well and is in the process of adapting and changing to suit the needs of those who wield that language. It is important we all understand that language is for our use and need not constrain us or rob us of our authentic voice. This is even truer for children as they begin to navigate the world of reading and writing. Encourage them to embrace their ability to use language to perfectly express themselves, even if this expression takes the form of creative words they craft to express their ideas with precision. In the immortal words of Maurice Sendak, a master of this process if there ever was one, “Let the wild rumpus begin!”
For those who would like to learn more about the language of Pooh, there is a wonderful blog post on the Oxford Dictionary web page at: http://blog.oxforddictionaries.com/2012/11/winnie-the-pooh/
 
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Springtime Storybooks and Expressive Activities

In Like a Lion, Out Like a Lamb

by Lorie Hill

March roars in like a lion

So fierce,

The wind so cold,

It seems to pierce.

The month rolls on

And spring draws near,

And March goes out

Like a lamb so dear.

Have you ever heard the saying, “March comes in like a lion and goes out like a lamb?” This expression describes the winds that often blow in late winter and early spring. In addition to your circle time activities, your children might find it enjoyable to roar like a lion of wind, and then be like a breeze that blows as gentle as a lamb.
You could also include the following finger play activity:

Five little children one March day (hold up five fingers)

Went for a walk just this way. (march in place)

The wind blew hard and the wind blew strong (wave arms above head)

As the five little children marched along. (march in place)

It turned those children around in the street (twirl around)

Then it blew each one right off their feet! (tumble down)

ArrivalOfSpring-smAsk your children how the weather changes in spring. In my area, spring weather usually means windy days and lots of rain showers. The rain brings flowers into bloom, so we start looking for the new shoots of green. The breezy days are the best for a highflying kite, too! Ah, as I look at the window to a foot of snow on the ground, I can already imagine the smell of fresh spring air and feel the warmth from the sun. After a long winter, it’s refreshing and rejuvenating imagery!

Below you will find a thematic early elementary book list for spring. Most of these books may be found at your local public library. You can even turn it into a treasure hunt as your children try to search for the titles to these books on the shelves.
Waiting-For-Spring Stories by Bethany Roberts
Dandelion Adventures by L. Patricia Kite
It’s Spring! by Linda Glaser
My Spring Robin by Anne Rockwell
Spring is Here by Lois Lenski
The Seasons of Arnold’s Apple Tree by Gail Gibbons
The Spring Equinox by Ellen Jackson
“The Sun and the WInd” – an Aesop’s Fable
Story of the Root Children by Sibylie Von Olfers
The Sun Egg by Elsa Beskow
Ollie's ski tripFor those of you who are still encountering the more wintry side of spring, I highly recommend reading Elsa Beskow’s book, Ollie’s Ski Trip. It’s a delightful and imaginative picture book that involves Jack Frost, King Winter, Mrs. Thaw and Lady Spring. It’s a story that will be enjoyed by all!
 
Last but not least, in honor of the famous children’s writer and illustrator, Dr. Seuss, who was born on March 2, 1904, there must be made mention of the Dr. Seuss/Cat in the Hat color plus stencil book, Oh, the Things Spring Bring! Yes! May we all relish in the thoughts of the things that spring will bring!
 
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Riddle Me a Riddle!

What lives in winter,

Dies in summer,

And grows with its roots upwards?

For all of you vocabulary buffs:
Have you ever thought much about the meaning of the word, riddle?
Off the top of our heads, the definition that usually comes to mind for this word is a puzzle or a brainteaser. It’s actually quite a fascinating word, for it has many meanings and can be used as a noun, a verb or a transitive verb.
If you and your children love learning new words, The Free Dictionary by Farlex is a fun site to practice your skills.  You will find sections on: Word of the Day, Article of the Day, Quotation of the Day, English Language Forum, In the News, This Day in History, Today’s Birthday, Today’s Holiday, and even your Horoscope. There are also games that introduce new exciting words: Hangman, Spelling Bee, Match Up, and Words Within Words.
Riddles can even come in the form of songs, such as the traditional American song, “The Riddle Song”.
It is a riddling fact that you can be riddled with riddles. So here goes!

What word can be written forward, backward, or upside down,

and can still be read from left to right? 

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There are so many marvelous books that introduce the world of riddles, jokes and tongue twisters. For the younger crowd on these wintry days when we are riddled with snow, try this one out that comes from Monika Beisner’s Book of Riddles:

I saw a man in white,

He looked quite a sight.

He was not old,

But he stood in the cold.

And when he felt the sun

He started to run.

Who could he be?

Do answer me.

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I Am the World's Greatest Traveler!

What is a riddle? It’s a little poem or phrase that poses a question, and often has a double meaning. It requires ingenuity and creative thinking for the solution. Riddles can often rhyme, but it’s not a requirement. As a Tuesday Tickler for language arts, here is a riddle for you and your children!
Riddles for Kids!I am the world’s greatest traveler. I have been transported by camel, dog sled, pony express, bicycle, train, steamship, automobile/car, airplane, airship, and rocket. I have portraits of presidents, kings, queens, princes, princesses, shahs, sultans, tribal chiefs, adventurers, explorers, patriots, martyrs, inventors, pioneers, artists, musicians, architects, poets, aviators, dramatists, novelists, painters, athletes, cardinals, saints and sinners.
riddles-300x225I have pictures of foreign beaches, rivers, lakes, sounds, waterfalls, geysers, mountains, monuments, castles, temples and ruins of temples, missions, bridges, harbors, docks, locks, locomotives/trains, balloons, rockets, zeppelins, windjammers, native canoes, modern seaplanes, and the world.

I am the World’s Greatest Traveler. WHAT AM I?

Riddles for children

Shel Silverstein

Listen to the mustn’ts, child.

Listen to the don’ts.

Listen to the shouldn’ts, the impossibles, the won’ts.

Listen to the never haves, then listen close to me…

Anything can happen, child.

Anything can be.

– Shel Silverstein

shel-silverstein-1Today is Sheldon Allan “Shel” Silverstein’s birthday! He was born September 25, 1930 in Chicago, Illinois. He was most notably known as the author of children’s poems and books, including the more popular Where the Sidewalk Ends, A Light in the Attic, and The Giving Tree.

 

 
Silverstein-where-the-sidewalk-endsDid you know that Shel Silverstein was not only an American poet, but also a cartoonist, screenwriter, and singer-songwriter? He didn’t start writing children’s books and poetry until he was 33 years old. He first studied music and established himself as a musician and composer. He even composed the song, “A Boy Named Sue”, which was popularized by Johnny Cash.
 
In the k-4 Oak Meadow courses, poetry plays an important role in the language arts. Shel Silverstein is by far one of the most revered poets, and his works are often memorized, recited and copied into the students’ poetry books. Even though Shel Silverstein passed away in 1999, his literary works and artistic endeavors live on. So, in honor of this comic genius, I would like to extend my appreciation for his fun, uplifting poetry. Happy Birthday, Uncle Shelby!
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HAPPY BIRTHDAY

by Shel Silverstein

So what if nobody came?

I’ll have ALL the ice cream and tea,

And I’ll laugh with myself,

And I’ll dance with myself,

And I’ll sing, “Happy Birthday to me!”

Fairyland

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Fairies are invisible and inaudible like angels.

But their magic sparkles in nature.

The fairy poet takes a sheet

Of moonbeam, silver white;

His ink is dew from daisies sweet,

His pen a point of light.

~Joyce Kilmer

Oak Meadow student, Fae Leonard-Mann, completed her third grade poetry block in language arts with a beautiful poem called “Fairyland.” As I was reading this poem she had scribed so endearingly, I couldn’t help but ponder how the season of summer seems to be the avenue for becoming entranced in the world of fairies.  
Little Leslie in Muir Woods!This summer, I had the joyful opportunity of personally experiencing fairyland when I visited Muir Woods National Monument in Marin County, California. Not only did I appear miniscule in this vast forest of giant redwoods, I could also feel the presence of tiny living elements amongst the ancient trees, shimmering streams, and frocks of ferns. It left me with a sensational impression that linked me to great unknowns.  
Exploring nature and reading the poem Fae shared in her main lesson book compelled me to further research and read other poems about fairies. I found a wonderful site that offers a plethora of fairy quotes, poems, and verses. For additional inspiration in music and cinematography, I encourage you and your family to view the brief video that offers soothing fairy-lilted voices and instrumentation. It is a balm to any fairy lover.
282265_456779501008138_1032505254_nAnother great activity for this time of year is building your own fairy houses. In the spring 2013 issue of Living Education, Oak Meadow’s Director of Curriculum Development DeeDee Hughes wrote a lovely article on Fairy Houses and Fairy GardensIt shares so many wonderful ideas and helpful tips for you and your children to design and construct your own fairy house or garden.
 
I do hope you take a moment before the end of this summer season to arouse your senses, hone in on your keen observation skills, and look around you at the mysteries of life that are so close to you. Who knows. You may even discover a new friend! 

Each fairy breath of summer, as it blows with loveliness, inspires the blushing rose.

~ Author Unknown

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